By Peter J. Smith
Smith contends that the 'two stools' stand for 2 commonly designated attitudes in the direction of scatology. the 1st is a carnivalesque, merry, even hearty disposition, typified via the writings of Chaucer and Shakespeare. the second one is self-disgust, an angle characterized through withering misanthropy and hypochondria. He locates this shift in sensibility within the challenge of the English Civil conflict and the aftermath of the recovery. Smith demonstrates how the mix of low and high cultures manifests the means to run canonical and carnivalesque jointly in order that sanctioned and civilised artefacts and scatological humour often co-exist within the works less than dialogue, proof of an previous culture's flair (now misplaced) to occupy a place among stools.
Of curiosity to cultural and literary historians, this ground-breaking learn testifies to the arriving of scatology as an instructional topic, while recognising that it is still if now not outdoors, then not less than on the margins of traditional scholarship.
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Between two stools: Scatology and its representations in English literature, Chaucer to Swift by Peter J. Smith